Mer seder

Seder, betegnelse på festmåltidet som innleder den jødiske festen pesach. Navnet seder (orden) viser at det dreier seg om et fastlagt ritual. En seder begynner med at det leses en velsignelse over vinen (kiddush) og fortsetter med lesing fra boken Haggada, som forteller om hvordan israelittene, med Guds hjelp, unnslapp fra slavetilværelsen i Egypt (2. The “Seder-to-Go” kit was designed to bring a complete seder to Jewish patients, including all necessary food and supplies, in an elegantly designed and easily distributed package. Each kit includes a seder guide, ke’arah placemat, labeled containers for the seder plate items, Hebrew/English Haggadah, matzah bag, and a cute plastic frog ... Pesach, known in English as Passover, is one of the most commonly observed Jewish holidays, even by otherwise non-observant Jews. According to the 2000-01 National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS), 67% of Jews routinely hold or attend a Pesach seder, while only 46% belong to a synagogue. When Is the Seder? The Seder feast is held on the first two nights of Passover (just the first night in Israel), after nightfall. Here are the dates of the Seder for the upcoming years: 2020: The nights of April 8 and 9. 2021: The nights of March 27 and 28. 2022: The nights of April 15 and 16. 2023: The nights of April 5 and 6 seder translation in Swedish-English dictionary. sv · Förstärka samarbetet med länderna i Afrika söder om Sahara, bland annat genom att bygga upp deras kapacitet för att utföra kliniska prövningar i fullständig överensstämmelse med grundläggande etiska principer och berörd nationell lagstiftning, unionslagstiftning och internationell lagstiftning, bland annat EU:s stadga om de ... La Mer Seafood Company is a full service gourmet market serving Armonk, and all it’s neighbors. Our “Fishmonger Extraordinaire” and experienced sales staff can advise you on your choice of fresh fish and share chef-inspired tips for preparing it. You can also select lunch and dinner takeout that will impress the most demanding foodie. There is a tradition at Rosh Hashanah to eat symbolic foods (simanim) meant to help ensure a good new year.This list blends both Ashkenazic (Eastern European) and Sephardic (Mediterranean) traditions and includes recipe suggestions for integrating symbolic foods throughout your yom tov (holiday) menus.. Another option is to incorporate lots of simanim into a single dish—think salads, grain ... Video: Företagets grundare Mikkel Selder berättar om vår raffinering av linolja och varför den är nyckeln till gott materialskydd Video: Mikkel Selder belyser den trettioåriga historien bakom Selder & Company AB Våra oljor och färger är underhållsbara dvs. du kan med enkla åtgärder se till att ytor behandlade med dem fortsätter vara slitstarka och fina, utan att behöva göra om ... Following the Seder service there will be a Seder Dinner - usually in the Windjammer. There will be a traditional meal prepared including brisket, potatoes, etc. The dining room will have baskets of Matzo available upon request during Passover. Information on the place and time of the Seder service and meal will be printed in the Cruise Compass. 407 Main Street, Armonk, NY 10504 P 914.273.1766 • F 914.273.1571 Follow us:

#Iksdagenval4 Tal i Eskilstuna

2020.06.14 21:22 viliot #Iksdagenval4 Tal i Eskilstuna

Hej allesammans, tack för att ni alla kommit och vill lyssna på mig här i Eskilstuna idag.
Idag är det inte långt tid kvar tills ni, Sveriges befolkning, får bestämma hur Sverige ska styras. Idag växer samtidigt populismen fram. Utan att lägga någon mer tanke bakom det hela skulle man kunna tänka sig att det är det samma som folklighet, vilket det absolut inte är. Folklighet är att vilja folkets bästa och se deras vardag medans populism är att göra det folket vill, även om det skadar dem. Att slå av sina kritiska instinkter mot allt är populism. Allt måste granskas och utvärderas noggrant. Samtidigt måste alla få ha sin chans att yttra sig. Vi är alla lika värda och bör därför ha samma rättigheter. Det är därför tråkigt att populismen tagit sig in i Iksdagen och att motioner som den om monarkin gått igenom. Jag säger inte att en republik kan ha sina fördelar men motionen i fråga är en hastigt ihopkastad röra som inte gör denna viktiga fråga rätta. Att regeringen stödjer utan att gå igenom och granska är idioti. Detta tillsammans med deras valmanifest, som till stor del bara består utav rent väljarköpande som inte är genomtänkt. Saker som att odemokratiska organisationer ska göras olagliga som går emot föreningsfriheten är ren populism som inte borde tas på allvar. Även om du är en idiot ska du ha rättigheter. Hela vänstern med regeringen blir mer och mer populistisk och det är onyttigt för hela Sverige. Som avslut tänkte jag läsa några verser ur "Till glädjen" av Schiller som Europahymnen är musik till.
Men den kunskap, forskarn vinner, Glädjens ljus hans öga rör. Mänskovännen honom finner Hos den lycklige, han gör. Hjälten, som för äran strider, Möter han med ryktets röst, Men den dygdige, som lider, Äger honom i sitt bröst.
Kraft i motgång, helgd av seder, Dygdens, sanningens försvar, Flärdens avsky, hjärtats heder, Slut på världens barndomsdar, Manlig stolthet inför kungar, Åt förtjänsten lagerns lott, Ingen Gud, som blixten slungar, Ingen träldom, - ordning blott!
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2019.11.13 12:47 MarleyEngvall the vein clairvoyant has been created

By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. THE PERSIAN DOMINION. ——•—— CYRUS, B.C. 560. Fall of Babylon, B.C. 538. The Return, B.C. 536. CAMBYSES, B.C. 529. DARIUS I., B.C. 522. Completion of the Temple, B.C. 516. XERXES, B.C. 485. Story of Esther, B.C. 480-490? ARTAXERXES, B.C. 465. Coming of Ezra, B.C. 459. Coming of Nehemiah, B.C. 415. Secession of Manasseh, B.C. 419. Malachi, B.C. 400? LECTURE XLIII. THE RETURN. ——•—— SPECIAL AUTHORITIES. (1) Isaiah xl.-lxvi. (2) Ezra i.-vi. (3) Psalms cvii.-cl. (4) Haggai. (5) Zechariah i.-viii. TRADITIONS. 1 Esdras ii.-vii. Josephus Ant. xi. 1-4. Seder Olam, pp. 107, 108 (with comments of Derembourg, Histoire de la Palestine, pp. 19, 20, 21). THE PERSIAN DOMINION. ——•—— LECTURE XLIII. THE RETURN. THE RETURN from the Captivity opens the final era of the history of the Jewish Church and Nation. That any nation should have survived such a dislocation and dissolution of all local and social bonds is almost with- out example. But as in the case of the Greek race centuries of foreign dominion have been unable to eradicate the memory of their distant glory, so in the case of the Israelites, their transplantation to another country was unable to efface the religious aspiration which was the bond of their national coherence. The other Semitic tribes, Moab, Ammon, Edom, felt that with the loss of their home they would lose all. Israel alone survived. The Restoration was an event which, unlikely and remote as it might have seemed, was deemed almost a certainty in the expectations of the exiles. The con- fidence of Jeremiah and Ezekiel never flagged that within two generations from the beginning of the Cap- tivity their countrymen would return. The patriotic sentiment, which had existed as it were unconsciously before, found its first definite expression at this period. The keen sense as of personal anguish at the overthrow of Jerusalem poured forth in the Lamentations—the touching cry, "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, may "my right hand forget herself"—the clinging to the remembrance of the very dust and stones of Jerusalem,— the earnest supplication for the Holy Nation and the Holy City, kept alive the flame which from this time never died till it was extinguished under the ruins of their country in the final overthrow by Titus. And when the day at last arrived which was to see their expectations fulfilled, the burst of joy was such as has no parallel in the sacred volume; it is in- deed the Revival, the Second Birth, the Second Exodus of the nation. There was now "a new song," of which the burden was that the Eternal again reigned over the earth, and that the gigantic idolatries which sur- rounded them had received a deadly shock; that the waters of oppression had rolled back in which they had been struggling like drowning men; that the snare was broken in which they had been entangled like a caged bird. It was like a dream, too good to be true. The gayety, the laughter of their poetry, resounded far and wide. The surrounding nations could not but confess what great things had been done for them. It was like the sudden rush of the waters into the dry torrent-beds of the south of Palestine, or of the yet extremer south, of which they may have heard, in far Ethiopia. It was like the reaper bearing on his shoulder the golden sheaves in summer which he had sown amongst the tears of winter. So full were their hearts, that all nature was called to join in their thankfulness. The vast rivers of their new Mesopotamian home, and the waves of the Indian Ocean, are to take part in the chorus, and clap their foaming crests like living hands. The mountains of their own native lad are invited to express their joy; each tree in the forests that clothed the hills, or that cast their shade over the field, is to have a tongue for the occasion. In accordance with these strains of the Psalmists there was the Prophetic announcement of the beginning of the new epoch in words which, whilst they vibrate with a force beyond their own time, derive their original strength from the circumstances of their first utterance, and which gave to their unknown author, who thus "comforted them that "mourned in Sion," the name of the Prophet of glad tidings. "Comfort ye, my people, saith your God. "Speak unto Jerusalem that her warfare is accom- "plished, the her iniquity is pardoned, for she hath "received at God's hand the double for all her woe." "A voice cries, Through the wilderness prepare the "way of the Eternal, make smooth in the desert a "highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, "every mountain and hill shall be made low, and the "crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places "plain, and the glory of the Eternal shall be revealed, "and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of "the Eternal hath spoken it." That opening strain of the Prophet, so full of the great Evangelical truth,—Evangelical in its literal sense and true to the depths of human nature,—that nations and individuals alike can leave their past be- hind them, and start afresh in the race of duty; so im- pressive from its peculiar historical significance as the key-note of the new period of Asiatic and European history; so striking in the imagery with which it figures that Divine progress—demanding for its ap- proach and preparation the reduction of pride, the ex- altation of humility, the simplification of the tortuous, the softening of the angular and harsh—was heard in part once again when long afterwards in the wild thickets of the Jordan a voice was raised inaugurating another new epoch, and preparing the way for another vaster revolution in nations and in churches. But nevertheless the whole expression of the exhortation breathes the atmosphere of the moment when it was first delivered—the sense of the expected deliverance at last come—the heart of an oppressed people again breathing freely—the long prospect of the journey yet before them, through the trackless desert—all irra- diated with the hope that no wilderness would be too arid, no hill too high, no ravine too deep for the Di- vine Providence to surmount. Another utterance of the same Prophet is still more directly fitted to the emergency of his own time, though still more sacredly associated with the mighty future. "The Spirit of the Lord God rests upon me, "because the Eternal hath anointed me to preach good "tidings unto the suffering, He hath sent me to bind "up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the "captives, and the opening of the prison to them that "are bound; to proclaim the acceptable year of the "Eternal." It was five centuries onwards that in the synagogue of a hitherto unknown Jewish village the scroll which contained the writings which by that time were all comprised under the one name of the Prophet Isaiah was handed to a young Teacher, who unfolded the roll and found the place where it was thus written. He closed the book at the point where the special appli- cation to the Israelite exiles began. He fixed the at- tention of His audience only on these larger words which enabled Him to say to all those whose eyes were fastened on His gracious countenance, "This day is this "Scripture fulfilled in your ears." But the original fulfilment of the consolation was that contemplated by Prophet who saw before him the exiles depart in their holiday attire for their homeward journey; des- tined to strike root again like the sturdy ilex of their native country, and carry on the righteous work for which alone home and freedom are worth possessing. His mission was to comfort all that mourn, to appoint "unto them that mourn in Zion, to give them beauty "for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of "praise for the spirit of heaviness, that they might be "called the terebinths of righteousness, the planting "of the Eternal, that He might be glorified." Such is the ideal of the Return; nor is it unworthy of the mighty issues which ultimately hung on that event. Although the actual event seems small and homely, yet that very home- liness indicates one of the main characteristics of the epoch on which we have entered. Unlike the first Ex- odus, this second Exodus was effected not by any sudden effort of the nation itself, nor by any interposition of signs and wonders, but by the complex order of Provi- dence, in which the Prophet thus bids his peo- ple see an intervention no less Divine than that which had released them from Egypt. "Wheel within "wheel" was the intricate machinery which Ezekiel had seen in his visions on the Chebar; but not the less was a spirit as of a living creature within the wheels. The document that inaugurates the new era is not the word of Jewish lawgiver or prophet or priest, but the decree of a heathen king. "Now in "the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word "of Jehovah by Jeremiah might be fulfilled, Jehovah "stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he "made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom and "put it in writing." It is difficult not to suppose that the language of the decree is colored by the Hebrew medium through which it passes, but in tone and spirit it resembles those which have been fond inscribed on the Persian monu- ments; and if Ormuzd be substituted for Jehovah, and "the Creator of the earth, the heavens, and man- "kinfd," for the single form of "the Creator of earth," there is nothing impossible in the thought that we have the very words of the decree itself. But at any rate it stands as the guiding cause of the liberation, and stamps itself as the turning-point of the whole sub- sequent history. Before this time the people of Israel had been an independent nation; from this moment it is merged in the fortunes of the great Gentile Empires. There are three successive periods through which it has to pass, and each will derive its outward form and press- ure from an external power. Of these the first is the Persian. Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes were henceforth for two hundred years to exercise the in- fluence which in earlier times had been exercised by the Princes and Kings of Israel. The year hencefor- ward is dated from the accession of the Persian Kings as afterwards of the Rulers of Antioch and of Rome. We shall hereafter trace some direct effects of this connection on the religious condition of the people. It is enough for the present to remark that the community which returned under these circumstances was no longer a nation in the full sense of that word, and thenceforth had to eke out that inestimable element by its connec- tion with the powerful monarchies with which it was brought into contact. But this very change was trans- figured in the language of the great contemporary Prophet into the vision which has never since died out of the hopes of mankind, that the wide course of human history, the mighty powers of the earth, instead of standing, as hitherto, apart from the course of religion and progress, would combine with that hitherto isolated movement. "Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and "the glory of the Eternal is risen upon thee. The "nations shall come to thy light, and kings to the "brightness of thy rising. Thou shalt suck the milk of "the nations, and shalt suck the breast of kings." "Kings shall be thy nursing fathers and queens thy "nursing mothers." "The nation shall see thy right- "eousness and all kings thy glory." Doubtless the real fell far short of the ideal, as in the actual Return, so in the actual Cyrus. But the fact which enkindled those hopes, and those hopes them- selves, have lent a framework to the noblest aspirations of humanity: they are the same as Plato expressed in the well-known saying, that the world would not be happy till either philosophers became kings, or kings became philosophers—the same as the last seer of the Jewish race expressed in the cry, "The kingdoms of "this world are become the kingdoms of the Lord and "of his Anointed." It is evident that the return was not that of the whole of the exiles. Those who had been trans- planted from the north of Palestine in the As- syrian captivity never returned at all, or only in small numbers. Those who had been trans- ported to Babylon and became settlers, as we have seen, in those rich plains and in that splendid city, were many of them contented to remain—some holding high places in the Persian court, though still keeping up communication with their brethren in Palestine, some permanently becoming the members of that great Babylonian colony of Jews which caused Mesopotamia to become as it were a second Holy Land, and round which were planted the tombs, real or supposed, of the three great Jewish saints of this epoch—Ezekiel, Dan- iel, and one who is yet to come, Ezra. Still, there were some both of the highest and the lowest of the settlement who listened to the call alike of their inspiring Prophet and of their beneficent ruler; and we can discern the chief elements which constituted the seed of the rising community. The whole caravan consisted of 42,000; besides this were 7,337 slaves, 200 of whom were minstrels, male and female. We recognize at once some conspicuous and familiar names. Twelve chiefs, as if in reminis- cence of the twelve tribes, were marked out as the lead- ers. Amongst these was the acknowledged head of the community, the grandson, real or adopted, of the be- loved and lamented Jehoiachin, last direct heir of the House of David and Josiah—the son of Shaltiel or Salathiel, who bore the trace of his Babylonian birth- place in his two Chaldæan names, Zerubbabel "the "Babel-born," or Sheshbazzar, or Sarabazzar, and who, by his official titles, was marked out as the representa- tive amongst them of the Persian king, "the Tirsha- "tha," or "the Pasha," that old Assyrian word which has never since died out amongst the governments of the East. Next to him was Jeshua or Joshua, the son of Josedek, the High Priest who had been carried into exile with Zedekiah, and shared his imprisonment. Next to them in rank and elder in years was Seraiah the priest, son of Hilkiah. But of the ancient four- and-twenty sacerdotal courses, four only joined in the procession; it may be from the havoc of the priestly caste in the desperate struggle at the time of the capture of the Temple; it may be from the attachment of the others of their Babylonian homes. Still the number of priests (4,000) was large in proportion to the people, yet larger in proportion to the Levites, who numbered only 74 beside the 128 singers of the family of Asaph, and the 139 descendants of those stalwart gatekeepers the sacerdotal soldiery or police, that had guarded the whole circuit of the temple walls, and were believed to have rendered the state such important service on the day that Jahoiada planned the overthrow of Athaliah. Along with them were the 392 representatives of the ancient Canaanite bondmen, whose ancestral names in- dicated their foreign origin, the Nethinim, or "conse- "crated giftsmen" bound over to the honored work of the Temple service—or "the children of Solomon's "slaves"—that is, doubtless, of those Phœnician art- ists whom the great king had employed in the con- struction of his splendid works. So the names stood in a register which a century afterward was found by an inquiring antiquary in the Archives of Jerusalem, and its accuracy was tested by the additional record that there was a rigid scrutiny on the departure from Babylon to ex- clude from this favored community those who could not prove their descent. Such was a body of unknown applicants from the villages in the jungles or salt marshes near the Persian Gulf. Such was another band, claiming to be of priestly origin, and justifying their pretensions, but in vain, by appealing to an an- cestor who had married a daughter and taken the name of the renowned old Gileadite chief Barzillai. In the front or centre of this caravan, borne prob- ably by the Nethinim—in place of the ark that had formed the rallying point of the earlier wanderings— were the carefully collected vessels of the Temple, the Palladium to which the hopes of the nation had been attached, which had been the badges of contention be- tween Jeremiah and his opponents before the Cap- tivity; which had been carried off in triumph by Ne- buchadnezzar and lodged in the most magnificent of all receptacles, the Temple of Bel; which had adorned the banquet of Belshazzar; and which now, by special permission of Cyrus, were taken out of the Baby- lonian treasury, according, as one tradition said, to a special vow made by the King in his earlier days. There they were borne aloft, each article of plate was carefully named in lists three times recorded, the thousand cups of original gold, the thousand cups of silver, which marked the double sage of the Cap- tivity, with all the lesser vessels, even the nine and twenty knives, amounting in all, as was carefully noted, to 5,499. It was like the procession of the Vestal Virgins, with the sacred fire in their hands, in their retreat from Rome; like Æneas with his household gods from troy. Homely as they were, grates, knives, spoons, basins, recalling alike the glory of the time of Solomon, in their original gold, the decline of the last days of Jerusalem in the silver substitutes of Zedekiah, they were the links which seemed to weave a continuous chain across the gulf which parted the old and the new era of Israelite history. Forth from the gates of Babylon they rode on camels, mules, asses, and (now for the first time in their history) on horses, to the sound of joyous music—a band of horsemen playing on flutes and tabrets, accompanied by their own two hun- dred minstrel slaves, and one hundred and twenty-eight singers of the temple, responding to the Prophet's voice, as they quitted the shade of the gigantic walls and found themselves in the open desert beyond. "Go ye out of Babylon. Flee from the Chaldæans, "with a voice of singing declare ye, tell this, utter it "even to the end of the earth; say ye, The Eternal "hath redeemed his servant Jacob." The prospect of crossing that vast desert, which in- tervene between Chaldæa and Palestine, was one which had filled the minds of the exiles with all man- ner of terrors. It seemed like a second wandering in the desert of Sinai. It was a journey of nearly four months at the slow rate at which such caravans then travelled. Unlike the wilderness of Sinai, it was di- versified by no towering mountains, no delicious palm groves, no gushing springs. A hard, gravel plain from the moment they left the banks of the Euphrates till they reached the northern extremity of Syria; with no solace except the occasional wells and walled stations; or, if their passage was in the spring, the natural herbage and flowers which clothed the arid soil. ferocious hordes of Bedouin robbers then, as now, swept the whole tract. This dreary prospect preoccupied with overwhelm- ing prominence the Evangelical Prophet. But he would not hear of fear. It was in his vision not a perilous enterprise but a march of triumph: "There- "fore the redeemed of the Eternal shall return, and "come with singing to Zion, and everlasting joy "shall be upon their heads; they shall obtain gladness "and joy, and sorrow and mourning shall flee away." As before some royal potentate, there would go be- fore them an invisible Protector, who should remove the hard stones from the bare feet of those that ran beside the camels, and cast them up in piles on either side to mark the broad track seen for long miles across the desert. It should be as if Moses were again at their head, and the wonders of the Red Sea and Sinai re-enacted. The heat of the scorching sun shall be softened; they shall be led to every spring and pool of water: if water is not there, their invisible Guide shall, as of old, bring it out of the cloven rock. Even the wild animals of the desert, the ostrich and the jackal, shall be startled at its unexpected rush. Even the isles of palms which cheered the ancient Israelites in Arabia shall not be sufficient. Cedar as well as acacia, olive and myrtle, pine and cypress, all that is most unlike to the vegetation of the desert shall spring up along these fountains. It is a curious instance of the prosaic temper which has led many modern com- mentators to expect a literal fulfilment of the poetic expressions of the Hebrew Prophets, that the Jewish rabbis of later times supposed all these wonders to have actually occurred, and were surprised to find no mention of them in the narrative of the contemporary chronicler. But the spirit of these high-wrought strains is the same as that expressed in the simpler language yet similar faith of the songs of the "ascents," some of which we can hardly doubt to have been chanted by the minstrels of the caravan during their long ascend- in journey up the weary slope which reached from the level plains of Babylon to their own rocky fortress of Judæa. They lifted up their eyes to the distant mountains of Syria, and when they thought of the long interval yet to traverse they asked whence was to come their help? Their answer was, that they looked to the eternal, unsleeping watchfulness of the Guardian of Israel, who by night and day should guard them, stand as their shade on the southern side against the noon- day sun, and at last guard their entrance into Palestine, as He had guarded their Exodus from Babylon. The high, snowclad ridge of Hermon would be the first object that at a distance of four or five days journey would rise on the uniform horizon of the exiles. We knew not whether they would enter Syria at the nearer point of Damascus or at the farther point )but as it would appear, the usual route at that time) of Hamath or Riblah. Even then there would still be a long journey of hill and vale to traverse before they reached their home. But, already (so we gather from the shouts of joy with which the Prophet anticipated this happy moment), the dead city would be roused up from her slumber of sev- enty years. The sleeping potion of the Divine wrath has been drunk to the dregs—she is to shake off the dust of the ruins amongst which he has lain—she is to break the chain which fastened her neck down to the ground. She is to listen for the joy- ful signal of the messengers stationed on the eastern hills, who will descry the exiles from afar and hand on the good tidings from hill to hill, like beacon flames, till at last it reaches the height of Olivet, or of Ramah; where Zion herself stands on tiptoe to catch the news, and, like the maidens of old who welcomed the return- ing heroes, proclaim to the cities of Judah, each on their crested hills around her, that the Divine Presence is at hand; that the little flock has been guided through the wilderness safely; even the weary laggards are cared for; even the lambs are folded in the shepherd's bo- som; even the failing ewes are gently helped onwards. It is not difficult to figure to ourselves the general aspect of Palestine on the return. Monarchy, priesthood, art, and commerce had departed, but a large population had been left, partly of the aboriginal tribes, partly of the humbler classes of Is- rael, to till the ground. There was the Persian govern- or, perhaps more than one, who controlled the whole. The central portion was occupied, as we have seen, by mixed settlers from the East, who combined with the original habitants to compose the people, alter- nately called, from their twofold origin, Cutheans or Samaritans. The Scythians still remained in posses- sion of the Canaanite stronghold of Bethshan—the centre, at that time, of the borderland between Israel and the heathen nations, already forming itself under the Monarchy, but now becoming more and more defined, and gradually taking itself the name, which was at last in fame to eclipse that of any other division of Palestine—Galilee of the Gentiles, or Galilee; "the Heathen-march," or the March. In the Transjordanic territory, although the country of Moab and Ammon had been frightfully devasted by the Chaldæan invasion, the inhabitants had been allowed to remain in their homes, and their chiefs occupied independent and powerful positions. The western coast was occupied by the old enemies of Israel, the Philistines, now re-asserting their in- dependence, and their chief city, Ashdod, still speak- ing their own language—still worshipping their an- cient sea-god Dagon. The south was overrun by the vindictive and un- generous race of Edom, which even claimed the whole country as its own, with the capital of Akrabbim. There only remained therefore, for the new comers the small, central strip of the country round Jerusalem occupied by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. From these two tribes the larger part of the exiles were descendants, and to this, their ancient home, they re- turned. Henceforth the name of Judah took the predominant place in the national titles. As the primitive name of "Hebrew" had given way to the historical name of Israel, so that of Israel now gave way to the name of Judæan, or Jew, so full of praise and pride, of reproach and scorn. "It "was born," as their later historian truly ob- serves, "on the day when they came out from Baby- "lon," and their history thence forth is the history not of Israel but of Judaism. We trace the settlers of these rocky fastnesses back, each like a bird to its nest. Each hill-fort, so well- known in the wars of Saul and David, in the ap- proaches of Sennacherib, once more leaps into vie; Gibeon, and Ramah, and Geba, and the pass of Michmash, and the slope of Anothoth, and the long descent of Bethel and Ai, and the waving palms of Jericho, and the crested height of Bethlehem, and the ancient stronghold of Kirjathjearim, all re- ceived back their "men," their "children," after their long separation. Some gradually crept farther south through the now Idumæan territory to the villages round Hebron, to which the old Canaanite possessors once more gave its ancient name of "Kijath-arba." Some stole along the plains of the south coast down to the half-Bedouin settlements of Beersheba and Moladda on the frontier of the desert. The bands of singers established themselves in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, at Geba, or at Gilgal, in the Jordan valley. But these all, as it were, clustered round Jerusalem, which now for the first time in history assumes the name never since lost, and which in the East still remains its only title, "The Holy City," and if the country at large also takes for the first time in the mouths of he returning exiles the name which has clung to it with hardly less tenacity, "The Holy "Land," it is as the seat and throne of the consecrated capital, which, if fallen from its antique splendor, reigned supreme, as never before, over the affections and the reverence of the people. When Herodotus in the next century passed by it he knew it only by this name, "The Holy Place," Kadesh, Grecised into Kadytis. When, three centuries later, Strabo saw it again, though the name of Jerusalem had been as- certained, it was transformed into Hierosolyma, the Holy Place of Salem, or Solomon, and he felt that it properly expressed the awe and veneration with which he regarded it, as though it had been one of his own ancestral seats of oracular sanctity. All the other shrines an capitals of Israel, with the single exception of that on Mount Gerizim, had been swept away. The sanctity of Bethel and Shiloh, the regal dignity of Samaria and Jezreel, had now disap- peared for ever. Jerusalem remained the undisputed queen of the whole country in an unprecedented sense. Even those very tribes which before had been her ri- vals, acknowledged in her misfortunes the supremacy which they had denied to her in her prosperity. Pil- grims from Shechem, Shiloh and Samaria, immediately after the Babylonian Captivity began, came, with every outward sign of mourning, to wail and weep (like the Jews of our own day) over the still smoking ruins. It was natural, therefore, that the exiles had con- stantly nourished the hope of the rebuilding of Jerusa- lem, which they had never forgotten in their brightest or their darkest days on the banks of the Euphrates; that the highest reward to which any of them could look forward would be that they should build the old waste places, raised up the foundations of many gener- ations, be called the repairer of the ruins, the restorer of paths to dwell in. It was natural that along the broken walls of the city of David there should have been, as the Return drew nearer, devout Israelites seen standing like sentinels, repeating their constant watch- words, which consisted of an incessant cry day and night, giving the Divine Protector no rest until He es- tablish and make Jerusalem a praise upon the earth. It was natural that the names which had begun to at- tach to her during her desertion, as though she were the impersonation of Solitude and Desolation, should give place to the joyful names of the Bride and the Favorite returning to her married home with all the gayety and hopefulness of an Eastern wedding. It was natural that Ezekiel by the banks of the Chebar should so concentrate his thoughts on the City and Temple of Jerusalem that their dimensions grew in his vision to such a colossal size as to absorb the whole of Palestine by their physical structure, no less than they did actually by their moral significance. Accordingly, the one object which filled the thoughts of the returning exiles, the one object, as it was believed by them, for which the Return had been permitted by the Persian king, was "the "building of an house of the Lord God of Israel at Je- "rusalem which is in Judah." There was a moment, it might have been supposed, when the idea of a more spiritual worship, like that of the Persians, would dispense altogether with outward buildings. "The heaven is my throne, the earth is my "footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? "and where is my place of rest?" But this doc- trine of the Evangelical Prophet was not yet capable of being put into practice; perhaps in its literal sense never will be. Ezekiel's idea was, as we have seen, rather the restoration of the Temple on a gigantic scale. It was the chief, the one mission of Zerubbabel, and in a few weeks or months after his arrival the first step was taken toward the erection of the second Temple of Jerusalem, the Temple which as destined to meet the requirements of the national worship, till it gave way to the third Temple of the half-heathen Herod. That first step was precisely on the traces of the older Temple. As the altar which David erected long pre- ceded the completion of the splendid structure of Sol- omon, so before any attempt was made to erect the walls, or even to lay the foundations of the Temple of the coming era, there was erected on the platform for- merly occupied by the threshing-floor of Araunah, then for five centuries by the stately altar of David and his son Solomon, the central hearth of the future Temple; but, as if to vindicate for itself an intrinsic majesty de- spite of its mean surroundings, it was in its dimensions double the size even of its vast predecessor. The day fixed for the occasion of its consecration was well suited to do it honor. It was the opening to the great au- tumnal Feast of the Jewish year—the Feast of Tabernacles—the same festival as that chosen by Solomon for the dedication of his Temple, and by Jeroboam for the dedication of the rival sanctuary at Bethel. It was the first day of the seventh month, which, according to the Babylonian, now adopted as the Jewish, calendar, henceforth took the Chaldæan name of Tisri, "the opening" month, the "January," and thus became the first of the year. The settlers from all parts of the country, as well as the aboriginal inhabitants, gathered for the occasion and witnessed the solemnity from the open space in front of the eastern gate of the Temple. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 83 - 105.
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2019.10.31 11:24 stroke_bot spondylopyosis reblended misunions follicular throating gemmologists nonmanually

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2019.09.23 23:42 stroke_bot kokopu seascouts concolor mutisia intombment spinnaker omnifidel

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2019.08.12 17:31 stroke_bot syngnathoid

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2019.06.09 10:01 stroke_bot tiberius sullener coracles performers

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2019.05.05 11:20 stroke_bot numericalness ceterach cahokia laralia cheyennes flexed cloacae

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2016.04.23 13:57 JonathanRL HPSA: Psilanderaffären

Torka bort era fuktiga memes och hör upp; Historia på Sweddit Anbefalles! Idag ska vi ta en lite närmare titt på en ofta bortglömd men högst intressant episod under Andra Världskriget. Jag vill dock betona att jag inte är någon VonAdler ; mina inspirationer för den här artikelns tonläge har varit Tamelander (som är en författare som jag rekommenderar) samt Extra History. Jag vill därför också på förhand be om ursäkt för eventuella fel som kan ha smugit sig in i texten samt göra er uppmärksamma på att alla händelser inte är strikt kronologiska.
 
"Krig är en materialsport" skrev bloggaren Wisemans Wisdoms i ett av sina mer uppmärksammade blogginlägg och avsåg då att materiel inte bara behöver vara av tillräcklig kvalité för att slå fienden, den bör gärna också finnas tillräckligt med kvantitet. Kommentaren avsåg att påpeka det svenska försvarets brist på ersättare i händelse av konflikt och en läxa vi lärde oss dyrt under Andra Världskriget, nämligen att när det börjar bli kris i världen så vill länder gärna ha krigsmateriel och är mindre benägna att sälja till andra.
När Stormakternas krig bröt ut 1939 så var vår beredskap på intet sätt god. Huruvida Per Albin Hansson ljög tvista de lärde men det spelade ändå ingen roll; enbart i manskap var Sverige någorlunda välförsett men den materiel de hade var i nästan samtliga fall föråldrad och otillräcklig i ett krig. Som om inte detta var nog saknade man även tillräckliga numerär när det kom till kritiska saker såsom flygplan och fartyg. Sålunda var det bråttom att försöka köpa båda delarna.
 
Som ni kanske förstår var varken Tyskland eller Storbritannien i det här läget i någon större hast att vilja avyttra sina toppmoderna flygplan eller helt livsnödvändiga krigsfartyg till ett land som inte ens ville välja sida och sålunda blev det inte bättre än att det land som visade sig intresserat att sälja till Sverige var Italien som vid detta tillfälle inte ännu valt officiell sida även om man varit Tysklands dolda allierad under en längre tid.
För att ta en kort titt på hur den svenska marinen såg ut under den här tiden så hade vi precis avskaffat en hel klass av sk Torpedkryssare och hade enbart två stycken kryssare till vårt förfogande - HMS Fylgia som byggdes i början av århundradet och den moderna flygplanskryssaren HMS Gotland som är det närmaste Sverige någonsin har kommit ett hangarfartyg. Vi hade också hjälpkryssare som för det mesta var ombyggda handelsfartyg eller färjor av olika slag.
 
Dessa var dock förhållandevis svagt bestyckade och bepansrade samt saknade flertalet av de hjälpmedel som gör ett örlogsfartyg effektivt. Deras främsta roller var oftast att lägga ut minor även om Tyskarna använde flertalet som kapare och för att störa brittisk handel, främst i Sydatlanten.
Bland de större fartygen såg läget inte bättre ut. Trots den engelska benämningen Coastal Battleship så är de flesta marina experter ense om att Pansarskeppen som byggdes efter bondetåget 1912 och vars första fartyg finansierades medelst insamling (HMS Sverige) inte är att klassa som varken slagskepp eller slagkryssare även om Tyskarnas benämndes fickslagskepp av de allierade. Trots detta var de ryggraden i Marinen och innehöll avsevärd eldkraft med sitt svåra (tunga) artelleri.
 
Bland Jagarna var läget dystert. Enbart sex av dem (Göteborgsklassen) kunde anses som någorlunda moderna även om ytterligare fyra inte var tillräckligt gamla för att vara odugliga. Med tanke på Jagarnas viktiga roll under Andra Världskriget som skärm och eskortfartyg var det inte konstigt att man gärna ville utöka numerären med någorlunda moderna fartyg.
Sålunda anlände en delegation i Italien med order att i första hand inköpa torpeder och motorer till torpedbåtar men även att om möjligt köpa hela fartyg - Torpedbåtar eller Jagare helst men även Kryssare om man kunde få tag på dessa; förståeligt med tanke på hur få som fanns disponibla för den svenska marinen. Förhandlingarna gick bra även om det första valet som erbjöds - Jagare av Sellaklassen - ansågs vara föråldrade. Det italienska motbudet på två Sella och två Spica föll dock i god jord, framför allt efter att Svenskarna gett efter på en viktig punkt.
 
I början var det tänkt att fartygens namn skulle vara efter Svenska Sjöhjältar; HMS Psilander, HMS Puke samt efter Asagudens Tors söner. Efter att Italienarna påpekat att man kanske borde erkänna fartygens ursprung döptes istället de båda fartygen av typ Spica till Romulus och Remulus varpå samarbetet med Italien förbättrades avsevärt.
HMS Puke döptes efter Johan Af Puke som förde befäl 1790 under det Vitborgska Gatloppet när man bröt igenom en överlägsen rysk blockad. Kungen Gustav III - vars far avrättat Pukes far - påminde innan slaget glatt om denna gemensamma familjehistoria och beordrade att flottan skulle sätta segel och tillade att Puke "ej skulle spara sitt liv och sitt mod". Det morska svaret blev "Ja, Ers majestät, nog fan går jag ut, men hur det går med de andra det får vi se". Slaget slutade med en strategisk seger då Svenska Kustflottan undgick förintelse vilket ledde till Slaget vid Svensksund där den Ryska Flottan blev fullständigt besegrad.
HMS Psilander - som hela affären väldigt passande har namngivits efter - döptes efter Gustav von Psilander, fartygschef på HMS Öland under Slaget vid Orford Ness 1704 då han under eskortuppdrag av en konvoj till England vägrade stryka märsseglen för nio engelska fartyg; gesten ansågs vara ett tecken på underdånighet och var något konungen Karl XII uttryckligen hade förbjudit med hot om dödsstraff vid överträdelse.
 
Således hamnade fartygen över denna triviala anledning i strid när de engelska fartygen öppnade eld. HMS Öland besvarade elden och höll stånd i fyra och en halv timme tills fartyget blev manöverodugligt. Trots detta vägrade han att kapitulera genom att stryka flagg - istället band han flaggan så den inte kunde blåsa fritt vilket enligt tidens seder innebar att man var i sjönöd och behövde hjälp. Enligt tidens synsätt var på så sätt den svenska hedern och äran räddad; Psilander tillfångatogs men både han och hans fartyg återlämnades till Sverige efter en månad även om fartyget förliste på hemmafärden.
När affären var så gott som färdig så hyrdes fartyget Patricia in som ny hjälpkryssare i flottan och bestyckades lätt med en 12cm kanon och två kulsprutor inför resan. De fyra jagarnas besättningar inalles 450 man följde med på färden som avlöpte utan några större incidenter. Den 27 Mars halades till slut flaggorna på de Italienska jagarna som från denna stund blev svenska dito med nya namn.
 
Det blev under varvsarbete och testturer flertalet kulturkrockar, bland annat med officierarnas hytter som innehöll allt en italiensk officer kunde behöva (inklusive helkroppsspeglar) samt spontana sångnummer av de italienska varvsarbetarna vilket efter inledande förvåning var ett uppskattat inslag. Dessvärre är testturer av detta slaget inte riskfria och en man - Tage Sundgren - omkom i en olycka i radiohytten.
Den 13 April var Jagarna klara för avsegling och egentligen var det tänkt att jagarna skulle få en längre provperiod till sjöss med en seglats till Tripoli men den tyska invasionen av Danmark och Norge tillintetgjorde dessa planer och det blev nu bråttom att få hem fartygen till Sverige igen.
 
Under denna tid försökte man förhandla fram Fri Lejd via de olika ambassaderna vilket till slut beviljades av britterna genom Gilbraltar Sund till Lissabon och av den tyska regimen i Berlin. En kort permission beviljades även besättningarna under ett kort flottbesök i Neapel som gjordes för att understryka att jagarna bytt flagg. Ombord på Depåfartyget / Hjälpkryssaren Patricia laddades även 30 torpeder och annan ammunition som inköpts under besöket.
Under sitt besök i Italien hade samtliga ombord blivit förtjusta i landet och dess gästvänlighet och vänskapen mellan svenskar och italienare under besökte verkar ha satt sina spår. Korpral Curt Lennerhed ombord på HMS Romulus uttalade att de reste från "ett vackert land med vackra människor".
 
Styrkan lämnade således Medelhavet den 18 April under befäl av Torsten Hagman, Kommendörkapten av andra graden. Han var en mycket duglig officer som blivit utnämnd till Löjtnant 1917; dessutom hade han varit adjustant till Per-Albin själv när denne var Försvarsminister under 20:talet vilket får antas var en stor anledning till att han fick befattningen. Deras första bunkringsplats var tänkt att vara Lissabon och informerades den 20 April av det engelska admiralitetet att de hade fri lejd till Rotterdam där Tyska myndigheter skulle ansvara för fri lejd vilket beviljades av Berlin.
 
Samma dag så skedde en olycka i formationen; HMS Puke fick ett maskinhaveri och föll oannonserad ut ur formeringen. Dessvärre hade man aldrig lyckats informera HMS Psilander som kom bakom om detta och de båda skeppen kolliderade med måttliga skador som följd. De vattentäta skotten höll dock och alla fyra Jagarna kunde anlöpa Cartagena i Spanien för att få sina skador reparerade samtidigt som Patricia seglade i förväg till Lissabon för att där bunkra förbeställd olja enligt uppgjord plan. Jagarna som skickligt reparerats av spanjorerna trots de stora skador inbördeskriget orsakat på varvet följde efter den 26:e April.
Den 28 April slöt Jagarna upp med Patricia i Lissabon men nu uppstod flertalet problem. Inte nog med att Jagarnas oanmälda visit i Spanien hade gjort att nästan allt hemlighetsmakeri kring operationen misslyckats, man var dessutom tvugna att stanna under en längre period eftersom ingen olja fanns att tillgå - enbart färskvatten vilket tilldelades örlogsfartygen i rikliga mängder. Ett annat problem som Jagarstyrkan aldrig fick information om var att Britternas bestickning hade rekommenderat svenska UD om att "föorda om att Jagarna blev kvar i Lissabon och under rådande förhållanden bestämt måste avråda från att ta hem dem."
FORTSÄTTNING I KOMMENTARERNA.
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